# RM IV

**Statistics** - science - collecting, organizing, interpreting

**Norm** - Average
50% population

Mean - a type of average where the sum total is divided by the number of elements

# Measurement

the process of assigning numbers or labels to units of analysis in order to quantify or categorize them. Measurement allows researchers to describe and compare their data using a common metric.

# Measurement Scales

**Nominal**measurement is the simplest form of measurement. It involves assigning labels or names to units of analysis without implying any order or magnitude. For example, assigning a number for a gender,**Ordinal**measurement involves assigning ranks or orders to units of analysis based on some criterion. It implies that there is a meaningful sequence among the categories, but not that the intervals between them are equal.**Interval**measurement involves assigning numbers to units of analysis such that the intervals between them are equal and meaningful. It implies that there is a zero point, but not that it represents an absolute absence of the variable. For example, temperature**Ratio**measurement involves assigning numbers to units of analysis such that the intervals between them are equal and meaningful, and there is a true zero point that represents an absolute absence of the variable. For example, sales, income, costs, age, and height are ratio variables.

# Errors in measurement

- respondent
- situation
- instrument
- researcher/measurer

# Testing Measurement

and **Practicality**

Finding Norms - Plot graph Calculate Mean -1 sigma +1 sigma -> 68% -2 to +2 -> ~ 90%

Q) Importance of statistical in psychological research. defn of stats defn of psychological research

**Normal Probability Curve**
how we generalize

**Measurement** - Assigning a numerical value to the variable of the study

see also: Beck's Depression Scale Youth Self Assesment Scale - x = 50 sigma - 10 pathologization of normal behaviour neurodivergency