Learning and Memory

(notes from grade 11; memory at a glance)

Memory Process of recording any learning that takes place and allows later access to the same as and when reqd Memory = encode, store and retrieve info Memory = storage and retrieval of info
Relation bw mem and learning Without memory, learning is not possible. Without learning, nothing to remember. Memory = storage and retrieval of info. Learning = trace formation
Stage Model Encoding -> Storage -> Retrieval. (Recording information, saving information, and recovering information)
Encoding Sensory info converted into a form that can be entered into memory traces. Info -> visual images called 'iconic images' or auditory codes called 'echonic images'. Olfactory, cutaneous, gustatory.
Storage Learning brings about changes in neurons in brain called neural changes = engrams / mem traces. Activated when memory needs to be recalled
Retrieval Process by which info stored in memory is LOCATED for use. If info =/= encoded properly / stored adequately, then retrieval of mem won't be correct
Who made modal model? Atkinson and Shiffrin
Modal Model flowchart Sensory Register -> Short term memory -> Long term memory
Modal Model time thingy Sensory reg - extemely short interval, less than a second. Short term memory 15-20 seconds. Long term memory - Almost permanent; procedural, episodic, declarative
Types of memory Sensory, short-term / working, long-term. Long term div into declarative and procedural memory. Declarative can be div into semantic and episodic memory. Other types : explicit, implicit, autobiographical, prospective
Sensory Memory "snapshot", stores information that is sensory in nature (visual, auditory, etc). Replaced by new one / destroyed unless passed on to some other type of memory
Short term memory Sensory stimuli is coded acoustically - converted into sounds. Can hold 7+/- 2 chunks and 15-20 seconds. STM -> LTM. Goes to rehearsal buffer. If it is rehearsed / processed goes to LTM. Otherwise forgotten. Eg - repeating number over and over until writing it down. As soon as we write, we forget. After purpose served, gone. If elaborative rehearsal, ie information is organized in some fashion, then LTM. Working memory. Three parts (Alan Baddeley).
Chunk Meaningful grouping of RELATED information in STM. Helps store more information. Also used in mnemonics
Parts of STM Central Executive and sub components - visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop
Central executive (STM) coordinates material to focus during decision-making and reasoning. Two sub parts - VS and PL
Visuospatial Sketchpad (STM) Visual and Spatial information
Phonological Loop (STM) Holds and organizes info related to speech, words and numbers
Why is STM called working memory? - organizes info to be stored in LTM -organizes information to be retrieved from LTM for use with cognitive functions such as perception, decision making, reasoning. Info from LTM is brought back to STM for this purpose. This combined with info already in STM helps us understand obj better
Long term memory Info that is rehearsed well passes onto LTM. Storage is more or less permanent. Unlimited capacity. Classified, organized and stored like library Can be classified into declarative and procedural memory
Declarative memory Factual information like names, faces, dates. div into semantic and episodic
Procedural memory Skills and habits
semantic memory gk. rules of grammar and logic
constructive memory info from small pieces made into a meaningful whole. char of semantic mem
episodic memory autobiographical mem. personal experiences and events
Retrieval types Recognition and Recall
Recognition Stating whether we have memory of an event, person, place, etc. Eg- identifying a suspect in a police lineup. Memory traces for that info are activated again if we are familiar with the person or answer
Recall Retrieving specific pieces of information on our own. Eg - Witness describing a thief and his appearance. We use retrieval cues
Retrieval cues stimuli that we use to help remember info we feel unable to recall otherwise. Can be external or internal.
External cue is aka context dependent cue
External Cue context dependent cue. Related to ext env. Eg - Place, smell, sound
Internal Cue aka State dependant cue
Internal cue State dependent cue. Internal factors like mood, emotion, nature, illness
More types of memory Explicit, Implicit. Flashbulb memories, autobiographical memories, prospective memory
Explicit Memory Intentional or conscious recollection of info. Remembering dates and events
Implicit memory Not directly aware. Can affect subsequent performance and behaviour. Eg - stu draws margin but doesnt remember who taught him or when
Flashbulb memories Vivid recollection of shocking or tragic events. Chance that facts get mixed with a little fiction. Special place in memory
Autobiographical Memory Episodic memory about events we have experienced
Prospective Memory Planning ahead for what we need to do later. Eg - alarm clock
Mnemonics Greek for memory techniques. Improve our ability to recall
1. Use of mnemonic devices. Flow charts, diagrams, charts, etc.
2. Organisation. Large mass can be shaped into a small meaningful structure. Eg VIBGYOR
3. Association. Newly acquired info is associated with readily available cues.
4. Method of Loci. Series of places which are habitually visited. Place items to be memorized at diff locations along the route
Economic Methods of Memorization 1) Massed and Spaced learning
2) Part and Whole learning
3) Overlearning
4) Repetition and relearning
5) Rote learning
Forgetting Important for functioning of memory. Don't need all details; because it'll be a burden. Only summarization of important info. Forgetting unnecessary info is as important as the ability to recall
Causes of forgetting Lack of attention (sensory register to STM). Did not do required rehearsal (STM to LTM). Lack of proper cues
Definition of Forgetting Loss, permanent or temporary, of ability to recall or recognize something learnt earlier
Kinds of Forgetting Normal and Abnormal
Normal Forgetting
Decay theory.
Interference - retroactive, proactive. Accident.
Emotional Shocks.
State dependent memory
Abnormal Forgetting Alzheimer's, Motivated, Amnesia - retrograde, anterograde, Psychological Amnesia. Drugs, Alcohol, Toxic effects
Decay Theory Tend to forget with passage of time. Info entering LTM forms traces with constant use; more the use stronger the trace and remembrance. When not used, fades.
Interference Retroactive and Proactive
Retroactive Interference New learning interferes with info already present. Eg -
Proactive Interference Previously learnt information interferes with present learning
Accident Temp disturbances in blood can cause forgetting. Certain drugs, illnesses, fall from height, blow to the head, concussion
Emotional Shocks sudden shock eg sudden death can result in diff with retrieval of anxiety inducing information
State Dependent memory Encode in one emotional state and try to recall in another
Alzheimer's Severe memory loss. Result of disconnection of brain cells, begins with loss of STM. Names, faces, dates.
Motivated Forgetting Block from consciousness memories that are too painful to live. Repression. To deal with guilt, shame, shock. Sigmund Freud
Amnesia Retrograde - Memories before a particular event is lost. May regain in some days or years, may not regain at all. Anterograde - Inability to make new memories after injury / incident
Psychological Amnesia Childhood amnesia. Brain areas involving formation and storage are not developed. Stored in non-verbal form. Absence of cues
Drugs, Alcohol, Toxic Effects Addiction, prescription drugs, etc.
POWER Learning Prepare. Organize. Work. Evaluate. Rethink